Skrifennow

My blog, imported from Blogger and converted using Jekyll.

Cornish corpus word clouds with the assistance of the Institute of the Czech National Corpus

Jun 21, 2019

Intro

Kwords is an online tool available at kwords.korpus.cz from the Institute of the Czech National Corpus. It is optimised for Czech or English but it is possible to use for other languages by uploading your own reference text.
I have fed it with the traditional Cornish texts (originally prepared in digital form by Keith Syed of KDL), which I have stripped of all except the Cornish text itself. They are at my bitbucket repository.
My method has been to use Origo Mundi as a reference text and compare everything else to it. Normally you would use a much more extensive corpus but this doesn't really exist for Cornish. There is an option to exclude certain non-content words as pronouns, prepositions, conjuctions and numbers but this is only available in Czech and English.
The word clouds below are the keywords that the software has detected in each text, by comparison of the frequency of words within the text, to that of the words within the reference corpus (i.e. in this case, Origo Mundi).

Passyon agan Arloedh

Kommolenn Ger-alhwedh - Keyword cloud

drehevyskallawuthylhanethapertherodesfolbileniskilagalilatrygystewlysbyttegynskentrowmesterglywaskevysbarthkemmeraslaghysdyghtysgowsasyesuwodhyapaynysjustismariayntredhayndellmaylliyudasgrowsgewsisedhewonpilatyesuskristpederleverisethesavonesskrifysladerworthybisodywvynnaensbedhesveukemmyssynsikrowsvynnasjowlfeubennliesgorryswelasieurmaythkorfnynsythvoshidrepanorthdhedhaymabmeurdhevunnganshagdellpurnnymarnaragmayhayndhewarollywbysow

Bewnans Meryasek

Kommolenn Ger-alhwedh - Keyword cloud

nessaglywisongrassyesKernowsyghtVeryasekplesyesTewdardaderBretengwylvosemperouryurldhragonSylvesterWolkommgrassyesturantwordhiderMariaMeryasekYesudhyarlydhipysibeuKristdisongenowghsynsysjowlgalloesekDheommalelliesbynythayredihwipowwirpurythsursertandenvymeurnivynnmaywnydhymmoeusmardhynlemmynydhenadhbosgansnynowdhymmhebevthhabysArloedhdellvydhtydharagolldhiswarhagDyw

Gwreans an Bys

Kommolenn Ger-alhwedh - Keyword cloud

wondryspryvkevyskynthordyrbythkwethedrekkryswordhiHemmapaynysLusiferserpontdrefennDerHennaderorwtradhywelesomaythragdhoHwidoutwelprysKaymmeslelRakhennavrasHaommajyhennapuroovpubAdamgwrysdhymmovyyweustyvynnnyvydhdhymmdhemarbysnnamayhaghaowgansevTaswrathynhebdhisollDywdharag

Passio Christ

Kommolenn Ger-alhwedh - Keyword cloud

VabAnnastothgrowsloselLeverewghNazareHennatreysPederIouynCrystMyghternThasjustisYedhewonIhesuworthGodhedhywdhykoedhMablowenagwasmaravosHahwimeurdensertannebdhodhoydadredhevmarnypanlemmynywgansbosynwarragnnamahagnidellArloedhwrabysdheolldhisowthmayDywdhahahebvydh

Resurrectio Domini

Kommolenn Ger-alhwedh - Keyword cloud

VernonaprysongwelasdasserghikrysdhasserghiPilatMyghternMariadasserghysThomasCrystIhesubedhhedhywsevvonesdhygowdheuthMabkorfveujoynevvosmarowythmeurhwisurevArloedhnypurmardreniydhymmonanlemmynywtyyndelldhegansragbysowmahavydhthhaghebolldha

Pregothow Tregear

Kommolenn Ger-alhwedh - Keyword cloud

IreneusPERkontrariglorimenyakolonnowYndellmaAwgustinusyaIDENIMagesskrifapartdiskwedhysfolyaynnonmatervnderstondingiibeghosowYnwedhauncientsakramentepystylKatholikQUIAHOCMEhollAUTEMjerytapowerADesonlyverapostlysdyskansQUODMatthewVTsuffrainsubstansYowanndheragkaraDEIstatnaturverinenaderSEDCORPUSyndellmawarbynndhiapanaonlyRomEglosQUIDEerellawtoritaPowlkatholikSkryptorNONchaptraPedergeryowESTINSavyourETeglosfatellKristwrellaworthresonbaraSanshennanodhoYesusskrifystebelhonanusiwrugpogoescherytarannYesuesavosveuaralllieskynsaSpyryskorflelkowsagandhiworthythkighemmaHarinynsoniyllymadreevmaagahennaynwedhonanreshwihaywdhennebdenybosnagansmarynowragollhagdhpaneuswranybys

Tolkein

Kommolenn Ger-alhwedh - Keyword cloud

fydhavgeverdybavtybigilanowodhowskilaallasButterburlammaswydhhwedhelfenesterhedhisomglyweslieskweythwrussworefanomglywasyowynkrybdreylyaspalsgeryowdisliwesensavonpellderesedhasskeusvoesprederusowrEndBriBagbreowglywasElfowhobytlentgoedhasstevelldhosKoesdiwetthaayrgriasyeynGoldberriniwlWeltiwedhwovynnasmartesenerellvrekoselvirassevisvythdrefennhynsMerrikeverPypynShayrdiworthSamBylboTomMesFrodonebesesapoleverisEnaYthmesneppythdheuthbeukleromarnaskothowthEvnansdarasgasagolowfordhmiresethhowldosarallythsevelortovoshwirevIhonanimoyhirwosaorthveunynsvyagaHahidresgulhagmosdreNynsesbosleYgansYmahayndhekynsunnresyenadhndamartaowpanYnnanymanipurdhymmragbys

Skeul an Yeth 1

Kommolenn Ger-alhwedh - Keyword cloud

PamskavesovskolgothlestrierhwegynnowkuntellesredyagathPedersalowmartesenpoyntesensbravDyganasglewavtraowmebylstampyeynfeusikmynysennesonspronterfolennyethrudhnessawodhestaFatlahwedhelgwerthysYowannNosporangadoramarikarrjikadorkonvedhesEsaKernewekavonJoripeswarkeurnebonanNebeserellkernewekOttommamawMariastevellgourrybkiUsiHemmOttenaMrgegingewerlowarthFatellvoeskarregloslyverdybavYwplegEusNagPleDaPyugensostelesengesysPiwYthesedhaRokothYmaanwoeshelPythnowydhpraswarnynshiesachidarasmeslowrNynsohevelnynsythoHiNieurarghansywgwinhemmaKemmerenamahirgenesdalemmynNymardelleusevnawarngansydheowynhadha

Solempnyta

Kommolenn Ger-alhwedh - Keyword cloud

GovvythSowsMesPowyethShakespeareHenrySowsnektavesnebesponynsoleommaNynsvymaywragnyyndhehaow
Screenshot of the full output for Bewnans Meryasek

 

Applications

There are a number of applications of this kind of analysis illustrated in the talk slides here at Workshop on Quantitative Text Analysis for the Humanities and Social Sciences in April 2016 at Brown University.
Comparison of annual addresses by Gustav Husák against a reference of a current corpus to using a communist newspaper. slides Václav Cvrček & Masako Fidler

The future plans = something that everyone "wants" rather than something we "will do". slides Václav Cvrček & Masako Fidler

slides Václav Cvrček


We can see that choosing a different reference corpus leads to different keywords being noted by the software as important.
With Cornish we only have a small corpus available so our future plans are that in the next five-year plan we increase the output of Cornish.

Gwren ni ynkressya agan eskorrans geryow Kernewek! Yn-rag kowetha yn unnveredh kuntellek! Gyllyn!

Ebron y'n nos mis-Metheven 2019

Jun 19, 2019

Here is the transcript for the Ebron y'n Nos segment for June 2019 for Radyo an Gernewegva, broadcast in #435:

Mis-Metheven yw hi lemmyn, hag yn mis-Metheven yma an howlsavla hav. Dhe’n kynsa warn ugens an mis ma, a Druru, an howl a sevel orth 05:10, ha sedha orth 21:35.

Yth esa loor nowydh o an tressa mis-Metheven, an kynsa kwartron dhe’n 10ves, loor leun yw dhe’n 17ves ha’n diwettha kwartron dhe’n pympves warn ugens, ha’n loor nowydh arta dhe’n 2a mis-Gortheren.

Yow ha Sadorn yw gweladow yn nos, ha Yow yn rannneves Ophiuchus ha Sadorn yn Sagittarius.
Ebron nos gweladow a Druru hanternos 20ves mis-Metheven 2019 dhyworth www.heavens-above.com

Yn henhwedhlow, Ophiuchus yw “degor an sarf”, henwys yw wosa Aescupalius, yaghheor yn henhwedhlow Grek. Aescupalius o ledhys gans Zeus drefenn Hades a grodhvolas orto ev, owth owna Aescupalius kavos gallos dasserghi an re varow.
Yow yw orth enebieth dhe’n 10ves mis-Metheven, hag an howl, an norvys ha Yow ow furvya linenn syth.
An kevreyth howlek yn mis-Metheven 2019 dhyworth www.heavens-above.com

Sadorn a dhos dhe enebieth dhe’n 9ves mis-Gortheren, hag yw yn soth dew our a-wosa Yow. Rannneves Sagittarius yw sethor yn henhwedhlow, mes nyns yw den, Kentaur yw ev, hanter-den, hanter-margh. Sagittarius o helghyor, hag ev yw yn ebrenn owth helghya Scorpius – an Skorpyon.

Yma an steren Antares dhe’n deghow a Yow, an splanna sterenn y’n ranneves Scorpius. An sterenn ma yw sterenn rudh gorgowr, 554 a vlydhennyow-golow y bellder, gans braster +1.
https://heavens-above.com/hipentry.aspx?&hip=80763
Y hyll’ta gweles an liw rudh usi ganso. Myns an steren ma yw bras, yma gwredh ganso 3 unnses steronieth, ha’y golowder yn pub rann a’n kammneves tredantennvennek yw 60,000 kweth an golowder an howl. Antares a wra bos supernova yn skon. Yn skon, yn steronieth a yll bos a-vorow, po yn nebes milvilyow a vlydhennyow.

Braster Antares kehevelys dhe'n howl ha resegva Meurth. dhyworth Wikimedia Commons


An Ranneves Scorpius. Antares = alpha Scorpii (α Sco) https://www.heavens-above.com/constellation.aspx?con=Sco .


Yn henwhedhlow, an dhuwes Gaia a dhanvonnas skorpyon dhe biga Orion, an helghyor a bostyas ev dhe alloes ladha pub enyval y’n bys. Scorpius a ladhas Orion, hag an dhew anedha o gorrys y’n ebrenn, dhe gen tu an ebrenn, Orion yw gwelys yn gwav, Scorpius yw gwelys yn hav.

Yow a’n jeves braster -2.5 ha Sadorn 0.1 y’n termyn y enebieth.
Yow yw splanna es pub sterenn yn ebrenn nos, ha Sadorn kepar ha nebes an splanna sterennow. An sterenn Vega usi ughel y’n ebrenn dres an hav a’n jeves braster 0.

Onan y’n skeul braster a styr an sterenn a heveli bos 2.5 kweth an splannder dell welyn ni. Ytho Yow yw ogas ha degplek an splannder Sadorn. An resonys yw bos Sadorn pella dhyworth an howl, ha pella dhyworthyn ni. Sadorn yw nebes byghanna es Yow, mes Sadorn a’n jeves y vysowyer marthus. Yma bysowyer dhe Yow ynwedh, mes nyns yns i splann, gwrys o doust yw ha nyns yw possybl dh’aga gweles dre pellwelell.

Yma an tirell “Insight” hwath owth oberi war Meurth, ow musura an gewer war enep Meurth mes yma kaletter, an “godhor” a wra tardha yn-dann an enep yw stegys, hag an godhonydhyon a wra assaya y rydhhe dh’y allos dhe besya tardha.

https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/multimedia/raw-images/?order=sol+desc%2Cdate_taken+desc&per_page=50&page=0&mission=insight



Yma lies lorell nowydh, a wrug an negys SpaceX lonchya, henwys Starlink. Yma towl gans Elon Musk, fondyer a SpaceX dhe lonchya niver bras a lorellow dhe gennertha kesroesweyth bond-ledan heb gwivren orth kost isel. Yth esa an kynsa lonch dhe’n tressa warn ugens mis-Me, hag yth esa 60 lorell ynno.

https://heavens-above.com/StarLink.aspx
https://www.spacex.com/webcast
https://www.starlink.com



Yma towl rag lies moy anedha, martesen bys dhe 12,000 yn deg blydhen. Splann lowr dhe vos gwelys dre lagas noth, ha mar pia niver bras a’n par ma, ny via da rag steronydhyon, martesen y fydh moy a lorellow es sterennow gweladow dre lagas. Yma godros “froslamm Kessler” mars eus skwattyansow, lorell skwattys dhe demmyn, hag an temmyn a wodros moy a lorellow.

https://angelrls.wordpress.com/2019/06/05/the-threat-of-starlink/
https://www.kold.com/2019/06/05/scientists-stargazers-wonder-what-spacex-satellites-will-mean-southern-arizonas-night-sky/
https://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/starlink-space-debris/
Govenek a'm beus ny vydh hemma an kas.

Bys nessa prys,
Davydh Trethewey

Ebrenn y'n nos mis-Ebrel 2019

Apr 13, 2019

Here is the transcript for the Ebrenn y'n Nos segment for April 2019 for Radyo an Gernewegva, broadcast in #427:

Termyn a wra neyja yn sur ha gwaynten yw, hag yma mis-Ebrel ow talleth.
Nyns yw an nosow mar hir lemmyn, mes hwath yma taklow dhe weles.
Loor nowydh yw orth 5ves mis-Ebrel, an kynsa kwartron an 12ves, loor leun dhe’n 19ves ha’n diwettha kwartron 26ves, ha’n loor nowydh arta dhe’n 4a mis-Me. Meurth yw hwath gweladow yn gorthugher y’n ranneves Taurus, mes pell yw diworth a’n norvys yn y resegva, ha ny via meur gwelys a’n enep yn pellwelell. Yow ha Sadorn yw gweladow yn ebrenn kyns an bora, isel y’n soth-est.

Yma kowas sterennow kodha an Lyrids an mis-ma. An gwella termyn dh’aga gweles yw 22a - 23a mis-Ebrel. Y fydh ogas hag 20 a sterennow kodha pub our ow mos dhyworth an ranneves Lyra, yn north-est an ebrenn.
Imaj: NASA solarsystem.nasa.gov/asteroids-comets-and-meteors/meteors-and-meteorites/lyrids/in-depth
Yma nowodhow drog diworth Meurth. Opportunity yw kellys. Soweth ny sewenis an ragdres dhe gestava orth an wandryell arta wosa an tewedh doust mis-Metheven warlyna.
mars.nasa.gov/news/8413/nasas-opportunity-rover-mission-on-mars-comes-to-end

An wandryell ma o sewen bras yn gwiryonedh, drefenn an ragres derowel o saw dhe dhurya 90 dydh ha viajya 1000 meter. Hi a dhuryas 14 bloedh, ha viajya moy ages 45km. www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2014-245
 





mars.nasa.gov/news/8420/opportunitys-parting-shot-was-a-beautiful-panorama
mars.nasa.gov/resources/22341/opportunity-legacy-pan
www.popsci.com/last-mars-opportunity-rover-picture-panorama#page-3

Opportunity a dhiskudhas dustuni a vonow gwrys gans dowr linyel yn termyn eus passyes war enep Meurth. Yma imaj a olow Opportunity gans titel Kernewek avel rann a’n ragres HiRISE Kernewek: www.uahirise.org/kw/ESP_013954_1780

Yma gwrandryell arall NASA, Curiosity hwath owth oberi. Hi a wrug kemmer imajys difygow an howl diworth Meurth: mars.nasa.gov/news/8425/curiosity-captured-two-solar-eclipses-on-mars/
mars.nasa.gov/resources/22393/curiosity-observes-deimos-eclipse-sol-2350
mars.nasa.gov/resources/22392/curiosity-observes-phobos-eclipse-sol-2359




Yma dew loor dhe Veurth, mes byghan yns i hag ytho nyns yw an difygow kowal.
https://mars.nasa.gov/msl/mission/whereistherovernow/
https://mars.nasa.gov/msl/mission/mars-rover-curiosity-mission-updates/

Yma an tirell “Insight” owth oberi ynwedh, ow musura an gewer war enep Meurth. Dhe 2a mis-Ebrel, yth esa an tempredh ughella -17°C ha’n isella -98°C war Elysium Planitia.


Y fydh gwandryell nowydh henwys “Mars 2020” lonchys gans NASA yn mis-Gortheren 2020, hag y’n keth mis, gwrandryell Europek ExoMars.


An gwrandryell ExoMars a wra bos henwys “Rosalind Franklin” wosa kymygydhes a wrug kevri dhe dhiskudhans framweyth DNA.
exploration.esa.int/mars/61114-esas-mars-rover-has-a-name-rosalind-franklin
An savla-tira Oxia Planum yw ombrofyer an moyha komendys: exploration.esa.int/mars/60914-oxia-planum-favoured-for-exomars-surface-mission hag ervirans finel a vydh diwettha an bledhen ma.
An ombrofyer arall yw “Mawrth Vallis” wosa Mawrth yn Kembrek. exploration.esa.int/mars/60915-exomars-landing-sites-in-context
Yma nebes nansow war Veurth henwys a-wosa an planet Meurth yn lies yeth. Martesen yma le a yll kavos hanow “Meurth Vallis” yn termyn a dheu?



An hwrithrell Chinek Chang’e-4 a diras war eneb pell an loer neb nag yw treylys bythkweth dhe’n norvys yn kowdoll “Von Kármán”.

www.astronomy.com/news/2019/01/chinas-change-4-mission-lands-on-moons-far-side-snaps-first-image
planetary.org/blogs/jason-davis/change4-success.html

Dhe kestava orth an tirell yth esa edhomm dhe China lonchya lorell arall dhe dhannvon an messajys ynter a’n norvys ha’n hwrithrell.
spacenews.com/change-4-relay-satellite-enters-halo-orbit-around-earth-moon-l2-microsatellite-in-lunar-orbit/
spacenews.com/change-4-powers-down-for-second-lunar-night/
spacenews.com/change-4-spacecraft-enter-third-lunar-night-yutu-2-reaches-design-lifetime/

Yma an hwrithrell efanvos OSIRIS-Rex ow pesya studhya an planetik Bennu. Ev a wrug arhwilans gans laser rag gul model 3D a’n planetik.
www.asteroidmission.org/bennu-visualized-by-ola-large/


Yma enep an planetik Bennu pur arow, gans karregi byghan ha bras.
www.asteroidmission.org/?latest-news=nasa-mission-reveals-asteroid-big-surprises
www.asteroidmission.org/?attachment_id=15551#main
www.planetary.org/blogs/emily-lakdawalla/2018/news-brief-osiris-rex-orbit.html
An planetik Ryugu ha’n hwrithrell Nihonek Hayabusa 2 orth y studhya, yw karnek ynwedh: www.hayabusa2.jaxa.jp/en/topics/20190328e_illustration/
Drefenn yw an enep moy garow es o gwaytys, yth esa edhomm delatya tirans an hwithrell. Byttegyns, an hwithrell a diras dhe’n 22a mis-Hwevrer rag termyn berr ha lonchya arta.

www.hayabusa2.jaxa.jp/en/topics/20190220e_TDPoint/
www.hayabusa2.jaxa.jp/en/topics/20190221e_TD1-L08E1_Schedule/

www.hayabusa2.jaxa.jp/en/topics/20190225e_TD1_W1image/
twitter.com/haya2e_jaxa

An hwithrell “New Horizons” a dremenas 2014 MU69 “Ultima Thule”, ha’y studhya.
www.planetary.org/blogs/emily-lakdawalla/2019/looking-back-at-mu69.html
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/News-Article.php?page=20190102
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/News-Article.php?page=20190103
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/News-Article.php?page=20190115
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/News-Article.php?page=20190124
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/News-Article.php?page=20190222
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/News-Article.php?page=20190307
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/News-Article.php?page=20190318
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/Galleries/Featured-Images/image.php?gallery_id=2&image_id=603

An taklenn a’n jeves shap koynt, gans dew rann stegys warbarth.
www.planetary.org/blogs/emily-lakdawalla/2019/mu69-baby-comet-contact-binary.html

www.planetary.org/multimedia/space-images/small-bodies/cometary-nuclei-to-scale.html
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/News-Article.php?page=20190208
Pyth yw ‘bi-lobed contact binary’ yn Kernewek? Planetik dewek kestavek gans dew lapp? Nag yw rond an dhew lapp mes hirbelyek ha plattys yns.
Moy leven yw y enep es po Bennu po Ryugu, yth yw taklenn a’n sort steren lostek na wrussa dos nes dhe’n howl. Yth esa Ultima Thule formys hag y dhew lapp keskwattya yn lent hag yn medhel, hag yth i a wrug glena warbarth.

Bys nessa prys,
Davydh Trethewey

An gwrandryell gwyls

Apr 7, 2019

Yth esen vy gwrandryell dres lies bledhen
My re wrug ow batris fest gwaghes yn tien
My re wrug dehweles data termyn hir
Mes ny wrav vy rosya namoy dres an tir

Imaj: www.jpl.nasa.gov


Nag eus nerth vyth genev
Ny wrug howlsplann bos krev
Lowr dhe dhaskarga'n batris
Ha sinella'n norvys

Yth ethen dhe gowdoll a wren vy a-rag
Leveris orth NASA ow rosow o stag
Yn mysk an tewennow ow sedhi ens i
Mes my a wrug rydhhe ow rosow gans bri


mars.nasa.gov/resources/5874/opportunitys-rub-al-khali-panorama

Nag eus nerth vyth genev
Ny wrug howlsplann bos krev
Lowr dhe dhaskarga'n batris
Ha sinella'n norvys

Yth esa an doust war ow fanellys howl
Martesen yth esa an diwedh ow thowl
Hag arta an gwyns a wrug aga glanhe
Nerth o gans ow batris pan hwrug howl krevhe

mars.nasa.gov/news/8420/opportunitys-parting-shot-was-a-beautiful-panorama


Nag eus nerth vyth genev
Ny wrug howlsplann bos krev
Lowr dhe dhaskarga'n batris
Ha sinella'n norvys

Soweth yth esa hi ow kul tewedh
Doust a-dro Meurth ny wren vy godhvos bythkweth
An tewlder a dhuryas an nos hag an jydh
Ow fanellys howl ny wrug ri dhymm nerth vyth


Nag eus nerth vyth genev
Ny wrug howlsplann bos krev
Lowr dhe dhaskarga'n batris
Ha sinella'n norvys



mars.nasa.gov/resources/5617/opportunity-catches-its-shadow

New research show elephants first created Cornwall's road network

Apr 1, 2019

Researchers at the University of North Cornwall are working on a new project indicating that much of Cornwall's road network was created by elephants trampling the native vegetation.

Elephants lived in the British Isles, including Cornwall during the Ipswichian interglacial (also known as Eemian) epoch between 130,000 years ago and 115,000 years ago, when temperatures were similar to or slightly warmer than at present, before the last glacial period.

See the following link by George Monbiot: www.monbiot.com/2015/06/15/thinking-like-an-elephant/

Historical average temperature on Earth (Wikimedia Commons)

A model of a straight-tusked elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) (Credit: BBC Earth/Apotea)

Elephants will have made tracks over most of Britain, however in much of this area, the tracks would surely have been erased by ice sheets in the Last Glacial Maximum.

Ice sheets in Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum
Cornwall however was not glaciated, so tracks made by elephants in the 130-115kyr BP interglacial could have survived, and may have continued in use by herds of migrating woolly mammoth that visited Cornwall in the summer to graze, and potentially the early Cornish who hunted them.
Woolly mammoth were able to reach their summer pastures in Cornwall by crossing the Channel river - either in sections where it was broad and shallow, or during the spring before the ice melted.

Elephants travelling on their favourite routes in Cornwall would over time create enduring tracks by trampling and browsing of vegetation, and compaction of soil. These routes would be more easily followed by other wildlife, and eventually humans. There would also have been additional resources due to the distribution of plant seeds and improvement of soil nutrients by elephant droppings.

The research used a download of the secondary, tertiary and unclassified road network in Cornwall, from OpenStreetMap. Primary and trunk roads were ignored since they are liable to be on modern alignments.

Were some of these roads built by elephants?
Cornwall was contrasted with Cumbria, since any elephant tracks would be expected to be erased there during the last glacial period.
Cumbria in northern England was covered in thick ice sheets during the last glacial period, so it is presumed that any traces of elephants from the previous interglacial are erased.

Northern Wales was similarly covered by a thick ice sheet.
Modelling of the last glacial period in Wales (Patton et al 2012) researchgate.net/publication/248381136_The_last_Welsh_Ice_Cap_Part_1_-_Modelling_its_evolution_sensitivity_and_associated_climate.

The secondary, tertiary and unclassified roads have various numbers of features in the different areas:

  • Cornwall - 9730
  • Cumbria - 9704
  • Wales - 30775
Using K-means clustering, showing 5 clusters in Cornwall and Cumbria:
there are the Isles of Scilly, and a spurious feature off the map, so there are really 7 clusters here

5 K-means clusters of the minor road network in Cumbria
The numbers of features, total road length, mean and median length in the clusters are:

Cornwall:

  • 0: 1001, 846km, 845m, 455m
  • 3: 2689, 1406km, 523m, 257m
  • 4: 2034, 1375km, 676m, 403m
  • 5: 2597, 1597km, 615m, 293m
  • 6: 1308, 596km, 456m, 215m

Cumbria:


  • 0: 2104, 1202km, 571m, 232m
  • 1: 1754, 802km, 457m, 213m
  • 2: 2468, 1929km, 782m, 344m
  • 3: 1793, 861km, 480m, 213m
  • 4: 1585, 914km, 576m, 241m 

Cornwall has 2 clusters (0 and 6 in the far west, and north Cornwall respectively) that are much smaller in terms of number of features than the other 3, indicating that certain clusters, notably the two largest clusters, labelled 3 and 5 have a dense road network which originated when elephants followed river valleys in their migrations in search of food sources.
Cluster 0 in North Cornwall is less dense possibly due to episodic glaciation of Bodmin Moor and surrounding areas erasing elephant tracks.

Cumbria in contrast has relatively evenly sized clusters, apart from cluster 2 which is larger than the rest, correlated with a flatter topography than the rest of the area.
The remaining clusters are similar in number of features and average line length. This is to be expected due to the erasure of the pre-glacial elephant migration routes.

Heatmap of road intersections (10km kernel size)

In Cornwall, there is a strong variation in the regional distribution of road junction density due to differences in the density of the elephant migration routes. It may be supposed that the area between Truro, Redruth and Penryn was highly favourable to elephants during the 130-115kyr BP interglacial.


In Cumbria, there is a lower density of road intersections due to the erasure of previous interglacial elephant migration tracks during the last glacial period.
The secondary, tertiary and unclassified road network in Wales, in 15 clusters to keep the average number of features broadly comparable to the previous work.

Outside the major urban areas, the density of the road junctions are markedly lower in Wales than in Cornwall, indicating elephant tracks were erased in the last glacial maximum.
Conclusion
The relative high density of the Cornish minor road network is shown in this work to originate in tracks created by elephants in the 130-115 kyr BP interglacial, and potentially maintained through the glacial period by seasonally migrant wooly mammoth grazing the tundra vegetation available in Cornwall in the summer during the glacial period. In contrast, in areas that were glaciated including Wales and Cumbria the elephant tracks were erased, resulting in a different road network topology.

All Posts