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Nanotechnology is sunny in Cornwall today

Aug 20, 2016

Using Python NLTK, it is possible to find synonyms of input words using WordNet, and then feed this into the translation memory software.

It can produce odd results since some words will have different senses that was intended in the input sentence.

When using for the sentence "It is sunny in Cornwall today.", the only sentence returning the bigram ("today", ".") is
"Morwenna yw lowen. Hy fenn-bloedh yw hedhyw. -- Morwenna is happy. Her birthday is today. : [('today', '.')]". However using WordNet to find similar words (by finding words that are hyponyms of the hypernyms of the word) bigrams ("now", ".") and ("yesterday", ".") are also found in the sentence corpus.

Enter some text please.
It is sunny in Cornwall today.
word: It
(Synset('information_technology.n.01'), u'the branch of engineering that deals with the use of computers and telecommunications to retrieve and store and transmit information')

(Synset('engineering.n.02'), u'the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems')

Hyponyms of all hypernyms
[u'aeronautical_engineering', u'architectural_engineering', u'bionics', u'biotechnology', u'bioengineering', u'ergonomics', u'chemical_engineering', u'civil_engineering', u'computer_science', u'computing', u'electrical_engineering', u'EE', u'industrial_engineering', u'industrial_management', u'information_technology', u'IT', u'mechanical_engineering', u'nanotechnology', u'naval_engineering', u'nuclear_engineering', u'rocketry']

word: sunny
(Synset('cheery.s.01'), u'bright and pleasant; promoting a feeling of cheer')


Hyponyms of all hypernyms

word: Cornwall
(Synset('cornwall.n.01'), u'a hilly county in southwestern England')


Hyponyms of all hypernyms

word: today
(Synset('today.n.01'), u'the present time or age')
(Synset('today.n.02'), u'the day that includes the present moment (as opposed to yesterday or tomorrow)')
(Synset('nowadays.r.01'), u'in these times')
(Synset('today.r.02'), u'on this day as distinct from yesterday or tomorrow')

[Synset('present.n.01'), Synset('day.n.01')]
(Synset('present.n.01'), u'the period of time that is happening now; any continuous stretch of time including the moment of speech')
(Synset('day.n.01'), u'time for Earth to make a complete rotation on its axis')

Hyponyms of all hypernyms
[u'date', u'here_and_now', u'present_moment', u'moment', u'now', u'time_being', u'nonce', u'today', u'tonight', u'date', u'day_of_the_month', u'date', u'eve', u'morrow', u'today', u'tomorrow', u'yesterday']

word: .


Hyponyms of all hypernyms

mechanical engineering is sunny in Cornwall today.
electrical engineering is sunny in Cornwall today.
industrial management is sunny in Cornwall today.
aeronautical engineering is sunny in Cornwall today.
nuclear engineering is sunny in Cornwall today.
nanotechnology is sunny in Cornwall today.
ergonomics is sunny in Cornwall today.
chemical engineering is sunny in Cornwall today.
It is sunny in Cornwall tonight.
It is sunny in Cornwall now.
It is sunny in Cornwall eve.
It is sunny in Cornwall present moment.
It is sunny in Cornwall morrow.
EE is sunny in Cornwall today.
It is sunny in Cornwall moment.
It is sunny in Cornwall today.
rocketry is sunny in Cornwall today.
biotechnology is sunny in Cornwall today.
information technology is sunny in Cornwall today.
It is sunny in Cornwall yesterday.
architectural engineering is sunny in Cornwall today.
civil engineering is sunny in Cornwall today.
naval engineering is sunny in Cornwall today.
computing is sunny in Cornwall today.
industrial engineering is sunny in Cornwall today.
It is sunny in Cornwall day of the month.
IT is sunny in Cornwall today.
bionics is sunny in Cornwall today.
It is sunny in Cornwall here and now.
It is sunny in Cornwall tomorrow.
bioengineering is sunny in Cornwall today.
It is sunny in Cornwall nonce.
It is sunny in Cornwall date.
computer science is sunny in Cornwall today.
It is sunny in Cornwall time being.
Nyns yw leuryow an chi salow lemmyn. -- The floors of the house are not safe now. : [('now', '.')]
Yma nebonan y'n gegin lemmyn. -- There is someone in the kitchen now. : [('now', '.')]
Nyns usi an flogh ow koska lemmyn. -- The child is not sleeping now. : [('now', '.')]
A-dro dhe gans lyver yw gwerthys lemmyn. -- About a hundred books are sold now. : [('now', '.')]
Nyns yw hemma dhe les lemmyn. -- This is no use now. : [('now', '.')]
Aga chi yw gwerthys y'n eur ma. -- Their house is sold now. : [('now', '.')]
Pandra! An gewer yw braffa lemmyn. -- What! The weather is finer now. : [('now', '.')]
Ergh a wra hi yn Alban lemmyn. -- It's snowing in Scotland now. : [('now', '.')]
An arghans yw tanow lemmyn. -- Money is scarce now. : [('now', '.')]
Ammeth yw tra vras yn Kernow. -- Agriculture is a big affair in Cornwall. : [('in', 'cornwall')]
Eus. Hi a wra glaw lemmyn. -- There is. It's raining now. : [('now', '.')]
An notenn yw parys lemmyn -- The note is ready now. : [('now', '.')]
Nyns eus le gesys yn kres an dre lemmyn. -- There isn't a place left in the town centre now. : [('now', '.')]
Ugens lyver yw gwerthys lemmyn. -- Twenty books are sold now. : [('now', '.')]
Bys dhe'n eur ma nyns yw an gewer mar lyb dell o hi de. -- Until now the weather is not as wet as it was yesterday. : [('yesterday', '.')]
Nyns yw hi pur lowen lemmyn. -- She is not very happy now. : [('now', '.')]
An glaw yw tynna es dell o de. Nyns o an dhargan gwir, my a dyb. -- The rain is more intense than it was yesterday. The forecast was not true, I think. : [('yesterday', '.')]
Oll an gerens yw marow lemmyn. -- All the near relations are dead now. : [('now', '.')]
Morwenna yw lowen. Hy fenn-bloedh yw hedhyw. -- Morwenna is happy. Her birthday is today. : [('today', '.')]
An byskadoryon yw parys lemmyn. -- The fishermen are ready now. : [('now', '.')]
Yma an dioges yn le'ti lemmyn. -- The farmwife is in the dairy now. : [('now', '.')]
Ni yw lowen lemmyn. -- We are happy now. : [('now', '.')]
Yma neppyth nowydh y'n dre lemmyn. Henn yw bryntin! -- There's something new in the town now. That's splendid! : [('now', '.')]
Yma Jerri ow koska lemmyn. -- Jerry is sleeping now. : [('now', '.')]
Nyns eus anwoes war Pam namoy. -- Pam hasn't got a cold now. : [('now', '.')]
Dha gyttrin yw gyllys lemmyn. -- Your bus is gone now. : [('now', '.')]
Ottena! Yma y wreg ganso lemmyn. -- Look! There's his wife with him now. : [('now', '.')]
Ni yw warbarth lemmyn. -- We are together now. : [('now', '.')]
Yma spas lowr y'n le na lemmyn. -- There is enough room in that place now. : [('now', '.')]
Bronn Wennili yw an ughella menydh yn Kernow. -- Brown Willy is the highest mountain in Cornwall. : [('in', 'cornwall')]
Kewer deg yw brav mes nyns yw an gewer teg lemmyn. -- Fine weather is great but the weather isn't fine now. : [('now', '.')]
An gewer hedhyw yw dihaval diworth an gewer de. -- The weather today is different from the weather yesterday. : [('yesterday', '.')]
Nyns eus denvydh omma kynth yw hi seyth eur lemmyn. -- There's no one here although it's seven o'clock now. : [('now', '.')]
An vamm re worras an kinyow war an voes lemmyn. Kynsa yma kowl onyon. -- Mother has put the dinner on the table now. First there is onion soup. : [('now', '.')]
An chi yw gwerthys lemmyn. -- The house is sold now. : [('now', '.')]
Nyns eus meur a gommolennow lemmyn. -- There are not many clouds now. : [('now', '.')]
Dydh da, Maureen. Brav yw lemmyn. -- Hello, Maureen. It's grand now. : [('now', '.')]

Translation memory for Cornish now with a GUI

Aug 19, 2016

I have developed the translation memory software a little further as part of my TaklowKernewek tools.

It now has a GUI:

Using only bigrams and trigrams from the corpus that contain at least one non stopword (based on NLTK stopwords corpus).

Showing all bigrams and trigrams outputs a long list of sentences containing ('is', 'the').
Sentences in the corpus that contain multiple trigrams in common with the input are ranked highest, and similarly with bigrams.
After improvement to the text wrapping of the output sentences to split longer lines:

Translation memory software for Cornish

Aug 18, 2016

One of the discussions I was having with Mark Trevethan by email recently was about the translation service of the Cornish Language Office, and the idea of 'translation memory', that is when text is to be translated, to store examples of previous work done. This has two main advantages, one being saving labour, and secondly improving consistency.

I had an idea to make a rudimentary version of this myself, using the Python Natural Language Toolkit. To make this work, I needed a bilingual corpus, which had the same sentences in both Cornish and English.

The electronic version of the Cornish language textbook Skeul an Yeth 1 by Wella Brown, has been made available online free by Kesva an Taves Kernewek (The Cornish Language Board).

This contains a list of example sentences at the end of every chapter, which provides the bilingual corpus for this work.

What the program does is to ask for an input sentence (currently only via the command-line) in English, and then find the 'bigrams' and 'trigrams' in it, and also do so for the sentences from Skeul an Yeth 1.

The program uses the NLTK 'stopwords' corpus, to filter the bigrams/trigrams for whether they are in a list of common words that may not have much in the way of lexical content. Sentences containing trigrams containing at least 1 non-stopword are listed first, followed by bigrams with at least 1 non-stopword, followed by trigrams and bigrams that consist solely of stopwords.

For a larger corpus the numbers of sentences found for common bigrams such as ('in', 'the') could become very large.

Enter an English sentence
The cat is sleeping on the floor next to the fire.

trigrams for input sentence are:
[('the', 'cat', 'is'), ('cat', 'is', 'sleeping'), ('is', 'sleeping', 'on'), ('sleeping', 'on', 'the'), ('on', 'the', 'floor'), ('the', 'floor', 'next'), ('floor', 'next', 'to'), ('next', 'to', 'the'), ('to', 'the', 'fire'), ('the', 'fire', '.')]

bigrams for input sentence are:
[('the', 'cat'), ('cat', 'is'), ('is', 'sleeping'), ('sleeping', 'on'), ('on', 'the'), ('the', 'floor'), ('floor', 'next'), ('next', 'to'), ('to', 'the'), ('the', 'fire'), ('fire', '.')]

Listing N grams with a minimum of 1 non-stopword each:
Common trigrams:

Yma an gath a'y growedh war an leur yn-dann an gador y'n esedhva. -- The cat is lying on the floor under the chair in the sitting room. (the cat is), (on the floor)
Ottena! An maw moen na ryb an daras. -- There look! That thin boy next to the door. (next to the)
War an leur yn-dann dha weli yn dha jambour, dell vydh usys! -- On the floor under your bed in your bedroom, as usual! (on the floor)
Usi! Hag yma an gath ena ynwedh. -- Yes! And the cat is there also. (the cat is)
Nag esons! Yma an ki war an leur mes yma an gath y'n wydhenn. -- No! The dog is on the ground but the cat is in the tree. (the cat is)
Gorr glow war an tan. Oer yw hi. -- Put coal on the fire. It's cold. (the fire.)
Esedh orth an tan! Ty a vydh toemma ena. -- Sit at the fire. You will be warmer there. (the fire.)
Dewgh orth an tan! Oer yw hi! -- Come to the fire it's very cold! (to the fire)

Common bigrams:

An gath a gosk war an gweliow. -- The cat sleeps on the beds. (the cat), (on the)
Yma Jerri ow koska lemmyn. -- Jerry is sleeping now. (is sleeping)
Ple'ma an gath? -- Where is the cat? (the cat)
Usi an gath y'n lowarth? -- Is the cat in the garden? (the cat)
orth an tan -- at the fire (the fire)
A esedhons i orth an tan pub gorthugher? -- Do they sit at the fire every evening? (the fire)

Other N grams containing only stopwords:
Common trigrams:

Common bigrams:

Ni a dhybris li. Ena ni a gerdhas. Kerdh hir o dhe'n kerrek war an hal -- We ate lunch. Then we walked. It was a long walk to the rocks on the moor. (to the), (on the)
Eus jynn-skrifa war an desk? -- Is there a typewriter on the desk? (on the)
Ottena - yma an genter war an eurlenn. -- Look there - there's the nail on the carpet. (on the)
Yma pras war an woen hag yma chi ryb an pras na. -- There's a field on the down and there's a house by that field. (on the)
Sur, yma lyver war an voes. -- Certainly there is a book on the table. (on the)
Eus traow gesys war an lestrier? -- Are there things left on the dresser? (on the)
Yma bleujyow byw gesys war an fordh omma. -- There are live flowers left on the road here. (on the)
Yma padell blos war voes an gegin. -- There's a dirty pan on the kitchen table. (on the)
Ottena teyr delenn rudh war an leur. -- Look there are three red leaves on the ground. (on the)
Eus hwetek plat byghan war an lestrier? -- Are there sixteen small plates on the dresser? (on the)
Yw. Yma hi war an voes y'n gegin. -- Yes. It's on the kitchen table. (on the)
Eus amanenn war an bara? Eus! -- Is there butter on the bread? Yes! (on the)
Deves yw tanow war an voen. -- Sheep are scarce on the down. (on the)
war an amari -- on the cupboard (on the)
A nyns usi an boes war an voes hwath? -- Isn't the food on the table yet? (on the)
Esons i war an voes? -- Are they on the table? (on the)
War an voes (yma) martesen. -- On the table (it is) perhaps. (on the)
Nebes fordhow y'n ynys yw ledan lowr mes meur a fordhow ena yw re gul. -- Few roads on the island are wide enough but many roads there are too narrow. (on the)
War an voes ymons. -- They are on the table. (on the)
Skrifewgh hanow an lyver war gynsa linen an folenn! -- Write the name of the book on the first line of the page! (on the)
Esesta war an treth? -- Were you on the beach? (on the)
Esewgh hwi war an treth? -- Were you on the beach? (on the)
Y'n koes yth esa del gell war an leur. -- In the wood there were brown leaves on the ground. (on the)
An vamm re worras an kinyow war an voes lemmyn. Kynsa yma kowl onyon. -- Mother has put the dinner on the table now. First there is onion soup. (on the)
War an voes y hworrons i an boes. -- On the table they put the food. (on the)
Ena y hworrav ow hota war an gador. -- Then I put my coat on the chair. (on the)
Yma krys ow kregi war benn an gweli. -- There is a shirt hanging on the end of the bed. (on the)
Gorr an kellylli war an voes! -- Put the knives on the table! (on the)
Y'n seythves dydh an dra o dien. -- On the seventh day the matter was complete. (on the)
Ny yllydh jy esedha war an glesin. Re lyb yw ev. -- You can't sit on the lawn. It's too wet. (on the)
Ev a redyas y hanow y'n peswara koloven war an pympes folenn a'n paper-nowodhow. -- He read his name in the fourth column on the fifth page of the newspaper. (on the)
Pan splann an loergann war an arvor a-dreus an mor kosel, assyw hi teg! -- When the full moon shines on the shore across the calm sea, how beautiful it is! (on the)
Tasik! Tasik! Ottena! Ergh war an glesin! -- Daddy! Daddy! Look! Snow on the lawn! (on the)
War drysa estyllenn an argh-lyvrow y'n esedhva yma, dell dybav. -- On the third shelf of the bookcase in the lounge it is, I think. (on the)
Nyns eus karr vyth y'n fordh. -- There is no car at all on the road. (on the)
An gewer yw hager war an heyl. Ny yll den gweles a-dreus dhodho. -- The weather is ugly on the estuary. A person cannot see across it. (on the)
An rewler a worras an lytherow war an desk rybdho. -- The manager put the letters on the desk beside him. (on the)
Ottena! A-dro dhe hanterkans hos war an lynn yn kres an hal. -- Look there! About fifty ducks on the lake in the middle of the moor. (on the)
An peswara drehevyans diworto yw ev a'n keth tu. -- It's the fourth building from it on the same side. (on the)
Goel Sen Pyran a vydh pub blydhen dhe'n pympes a vis Meurth. -- St Piran's Day is on the fifth of March each year. (on the)
Henri a vynn esedha war an isella kador. -- Henry will sit on the lowest chair. (on the)
Ny yll ev esedha war an ughella huni. -- He cannot sit on the highest one. (on the)
Prag y tregh ev an skorrennow na? Drefenn ev dh'aga leski war an tansys. -- Why does he cut those branches? Because he burns them on the bonfire. (on the)
'Yma diwros war an fordh ena ha gour shyndys a'y wrowedh war an leur', an gwithyas kres a leveris. 'Res yw dhis gortos deg mynysenn, mar pleg. Ni a vynn y worra dhe'n klavji a-dhistowgh.' -- 'There's a bicycle on the road there and a man lying injured.' replied the policeman. 'You must wait ten minutes, please. We will take him to hospital immediately.' (on the)
Kerdh hir yw dhe'n eglos. -- It's a long walk to the church. (to the)
Py chambour yw an nessa dhe'n lowarth a-rag? -- Which bedroom is nearest to the front garden? (to the)
Ke dhe'n fenester, mar pleg! -- Go to the window, please! (to the)
Nyns yw an traow ma pur haval orth an re erell, yns i? -- These are not very similar to the others, are they? (to the)
Martyn eth dhe'n treth mes nyns eth dhe neuvya. -- Martin went to the beach but he didn't go to swim. (to the)
Y'n eur na yth eth ev dhe skol an eglos. -- He then went to the church school. (to the)
My a wra lenna hwedhel dhe'n fleghes pub gorthugher. -- I read to the children every evening. (to the)
An dowr a yn nans dhe'n mor. -- The water goes down to the sea. (to the)
Ni oll warbarth eth yn-nans dhe'n treth rag neuvya. -- We all went down to the beach together in order to swim. (to the)
An keur a ganas dhe'n fleghes. -- The choir sang to the children. (to the)
A vynnowgh hwi mones genen dhe'n dons? -- Will you go with us to the dance? (to the)
Dowr an fenten a dhe'n gover. -- The spring water goes to the brook. (to the)
Karol a lanhas an lestri kyns aga daskorr dhe'n lestrier. -- Carol cleaned the dishes before returning them to the dresser. (to the)
An tiek a dhros y vughes dhe'n skiber. -- The farmer brought his cows to the barn. (to the)
An brassa stevell yw an nessa stevell dhe'n wolghva. -- The biggest room is the nearest room to the bathroom. (to the)
An skoloryon, mebyon ha mowesi, a dhe'n keth skol y'n dre. -- The schoolchildren, boys and girls, go to the same school in town. (to the)
An awel o krev. Ny allas an gorholyon dos ogas dhe'n porth. -- The wind was strong. The ships couldn't come near to the harbour. (to the)

Text to speech in Cornish

Aug 15, 2016

The program espeak offers text to speech in a variety of languages, not yet Cornish, but I have made a bit of a hack that allows Cornish text to be spoken by it.

There is a Welsh language voice for it, and I have created a script that processes Cornish text doing a series of replaces to make it conform to Welsh spelling rules.

It would be possible to get espeak to speak Cornish directly by creating a Cornish voice for it, and I did start doing this a long time ago, but unfortunately lost this work along with my previous laptop.

The GUI launcher currently only works in Linux-compatible systems, because it launches espeak via the command-line via the Python os library. However espeak itself is also available for Windows and I will adapt the script to work on Windows dreckly.

The first quote as an mp3 file. The second is generated by pressing the "Gorhemmyn" button, and an appropriate greeting is chosen according to the system clock.

Transliteration from Kernewek Kemmyn to Standard Written Form

Aug 14, 2016

The script and its GUI frontend converts text from Kernewek Kemmyn to Standard Written Form (Main Form).

See also the brief writeup on my website, and earlier on this blog.

A couple of example sentences I use to illustrate some of its features are:

  • Yth esa gwydhenn y'n goeswik
  • Yth esa gwydhennow y'n goeswik

 There was a tree in the forest is the translation of the first sentance, and gwydhennow is the plural of the singlative gwydhenn which derives from the collective noun gwydh (trees). Gwydh would be use for a general mass of trees, gwydhenn a single tree, and gwydhennow a countable collection of individual trees.

In the left hand panel, gwydhenn becomes gwedhen showing two changes, firstly the doubled consonant -nn becomes single -n. The program will make this change for unstressed syllables, exluding those that are prefixes that have secondary stress like penn- in pennseythun and some others.
The other change is the y becoming an e as part of vocalic alternation. This occurs for y vowels that are 'half-long' in Kernewek Kemmyn, which is detected via the syllable segmentation program.
The function converty(inputsyl) in applies this change as long as the word isn't in a list of exceptions given in and the syllable ends in a consonant. If the syllable ends in a vowel (e.g. ay, ey, oy diphthongs, and -ya endings where the y (which is really a semi-vowel y) has been erroneously assigned to the previous syllable) the change is not made.

If backwards segmentation is chosen, this change won't happen since gwydhenn will be segmented into ['gwy', 'dhenn'] and the y will not be changed since it is now in a syllable ending in a vowel.

The word goeswik (mutation of koeswik) becomes goswik, as the Kernewek Kemmyn oe becomes o where it is a short or half-long vowel, and oo in a syllable with a Kernewek Kemmyn long vowel.

In the right hand panel, the word gwydhennow is unchanged, because the y vowel in the first syllable is now short rather than half-long, and the -nn is in a stressed syllable so retained as a double consonant.

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