Skrifennow

My blog, imported from Blogger and converted using Jekyll.

Galactic Information Systems

Jun 8, 2015

This is the result of georeferencing an image of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using the QGIS Georeferencer plugin. First flip the image horizontally, because celestial right ascension coordinates go the opposite way round to longitudes, because we are inside the celestial sphere.
Then with the aid of a star chart, find a few reference points, and use SIMBAD to find coordinates for then. I used the M31 centre, the satellite galaxies M32 and  M110, and the stars 35 and 32 And.
The result was that M31 is just off the coast of Italy.
The distance of M31 is approximately 780 kiloparsecs, 1 parsec being 3.09x1016m. 1 degree on the sky corresponds to 13.6kpc at M31's distance (note that the stars in the image are Milky Way stars and much closer) and that means that 1 metre on the ground translates to 0.4 light years in M31.
Therefore the density of stars in M31 is perhaps similar to the corresponding density of trees in a forest, except of course that the stars are arranged in a 3 dimensional structure, and the stars themselves are vastly smaller then the corresponding trees, the Sun's diameter at M31 distance corresponding to about 0.7mm on the Earth, the size of a small insect.

Some more work in progress re: Cornish GIS maps

May 31, 2015

Here is a little more about my work in progress in generating maps of Cornwall in QGIS.

I have downloaded various Ordnance Survey VectorMap data, along with some layers which come from OpenStreetMap. The OS VectorMap has layers including woodland, tidal water, surface water polygons (e.g. lakes and reservoirs), foreshore and surface water lines (rivers etc.) and others.

These is more comprehensive than OpenStreetMap, however the OpenStreetMap vector layers come with names associated with them in the attribute table in some cases. Certain of the OS VectorMap layer objects will exist in the VectorMap 'Named Places' shapefile, but as points rather than as names in the attribute tables of the polygons themselves.

In the map below I have used the woodland polygons from the OS VectorMap and the ones from OpenStreetMap, but only the OpenStreetMap ones are labelled, since only they have names in the table.

I have also generated contours based on the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, 1 arcsecond data, which is now freely available for most of the world. It is also possible to use OS Terrain50 contours, which generally appear smoother than these ones, however given these are released in individual squares, I found myself having so many vector layers in the rendering that QGIS crashed.

The Falmouth area, using contours from SRTM 1 arcsec
There is a fairly large amount of data entry to be done to put the names in Cornish, and beyond the list that has already been published by MAGA I would expect it to be slower work.

The OS VectorMap Named Places shapefile for the SW grid square has 2759 entries, of which 679 are various geographic features and the remainder are populated places.

The OpenStreetMap files have approximately 122 named woodlands in Cornwall (of 810 polygons, of over 9000 in the SW grid square alone for OS VectorMap), 56 named water polygons (of 327), 21 parks (of 45), 242 named waterways (of 2923) as lines (some duplicate names for different parts of a feature), and 1337 named places (of which I have already entered 421 in Cornish based on the MAGA Kernow list). There are 10342 named roads in Cornwall from the Open Street Map data.

Georeferencing a tithe map and overlaying modern mapping in QGIS

May 13, 2015

The National Library of Wales recently released a tithe map of St Woolos, Newport to Wikimedia Commons. There is a crowdsourced project to digitise, georeference, and transcribe the field names from these maps, however I wanted to try out geoferencing in QGIS with its georeferencing plugin, partly because it may be useful in the Taves an Tir project that Kowethas an Yeth Kernewek are doing, since scans have also been made of the tithe maps of Cornwall.

After downloading the full resolution (16,298 × 22,877 pixels) tithe map of St. Woolos, I used the QGIS georeferencer plugin which works by matching manually chosen points between the scan, and a map. In this case I used a map of the UK road network ultimately from OpenStreetMap via www.mapcruzin.com, as well as some of the OS VectorMap data. This includes railways, woodland areas and parks shown below. I styled the road map in QGIS depending on the category of road.

I used 8 points, finding road junctions that I could match between the two maps and a Helmert transformation (more information from QGIS web documentation). It was clear when I did this that one of my points was incorrectly placed, which isn't too surprising given the road network has changed since 1845, but discarding this gave a good result.

I've also downloaded some of the 1 arcsec resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, which has recently been made available for most of the world, including the British Isles, and transformed this to a contour map in QGIS.

Below is a map of a portion of the St. Woolas tithe map area, with the modern road network overlaid along with OS VectorMap data for railways, woodland, surface water and parks.

There are many options in QGIS for feature labelling, for instance it is possible to suppress labelling of small features to avoid label overcrowding, which makes it label street names selectively. 

Link to higher resolution version (8MB png file)

Aside - Welsh language names in OpenStreetMap

OpenStreetMap does have some Welsh language names, if the name:cy tag is used. It is possible to see these using the Multilingual Map Test site by Jochen Topf.
It is slightly involved to extract this from a download from http://download.geofabrik.de/ because it is in an 'other_tags' column along with various other things and a bit of string slicing is needed to get it out.
The name:cy tag is only used where the Welsh language form of the place differs from the version commonly used on English maps.


If nothing is done on Climate Change

May 12, 2015

If all the ice caps melt completely, the eventual increase in sea level would be about 80 metres. This is what the British Isles would look like:

 


Inflecting Cornish Verbs with a Python module

Apr 30, 2015

I have been developing various language tools in Cornish, and one thing I've been working on for a while is a module to inflect Cornish verbs according to tense and person. You can also specify whether to use a suffixed pronoun.
 
The code I have undoubtedly still has bugs, and may not handle every case, but is available on my Bitbucket account and discussed on my website.

In the meantime, here's some test output.

Verb PRENA: (to buy)
Termyn: a-lemmyn present
anpersonek : prenir
1s : prenav vy
2s : prenydh jy
3sm : pren ev
3sf : pren hi
1pl : prenyn ni
2pl : prenowgh hwi
3pl : prenons i

Termyn: tremenys preterite
anpersonek : prenas
1s : prenis vy
2s : prensys jy
3sm : prenas ev
3sf : prenas hi
1pl : prensyn ni
2pl : prensowgh hwi
3pl : prensons i

Termyn: anperfydh imperfect
anpersonek : prenys
1s : prenen vy
2s : prenes jy
3sm : prena ev
3sf : prena hi
1pl : prenen ni
2pl : prenewgh hwi
3pl : prenens i

Termyn: gorperfydh pluperfect
anpersonek : prensys
1s : prensen vy
2s : prenses jy
3sm : prensa ev
3sf : prensa hi
1pl : prensen ni
2pl : prensewgh hwi
3pl : prensens i

Termyn: islavarek_a-lemmyn present subjunctive
anpersonek : prenner
1s : prenniv vy
2s : prenni jy
3sm : prenno ev
3sf : prenno hi
1pl : prennyn ni
2pl : prennowgh hwi
3pl : prennons i

Termyn: islavarek_anperfydh imperfect subjunctive
anpersonek : prennys
1s : prennen vy
2s : prennes jy
3sm : prenna ev
3sf : prenna hi
1pl : prennen ni
2pl : prennewgh hwi
3pl : prennens i

Termyn: gorhemmyn imperative
anpersonek : NULL
1s : NULL
2s : pren jy
3sm : prenes ev
3sf : prenes hi
1pl : prenyn ni
2pl : prenewgh hwi
3pl : prenens i


Verb BOS: (to be)

Termyn: a-lemmyn present
anpersonek : or
1s : ov vy
2s : os jy
3sm : yw ev
3sf : yw hi
1pl : on ni
2pl : owgh hwi
3pl : yns i

Termyn: tremenys preterite
anpersonek : beus
1s : beuv vy
2s : beus jy
3sm : beu ev
3sf : beu hi
1pl : beun ni
2pl : bewgh hwi
3pl : bons i

Termyn: anperfydh imperfect
anpersonek : os
1s : en vy
2s : es jy
3sm : o ev
3sf : o hi
1pl : en ni
2pl : ewgh hwi
3pl : ens i

Termyn: gorperfydh pluperfect
anpersonek : bies
1s : bien vy
2s : bies jy
3sm : bia ev
3sf : bia hi
1pl : bien ni
2pl : biewgh hwi
3pl : biens i

Termyn: islavarek_a-lemmyn present subjunctive
anpersonek : ber
1s : biv vy
2s : bi jy
3sm : bo ev
3sf : bo hi
1pl : byn ni
2pl : bowgh hwi
3pl : bons i

Termyn: islavarek_anperfydh imperfect subjunctive
anpersonek : bes
1s : ben vy
2s : bes jy
3sm : be ev
3sf : be hi
1pl : ben ni
2pl : bewgh hwi
3pl : bens i

Termyn: gorhemmyn imperative
anpersonek : NULL
1s : NULL
2s : bydh jy
3sm : bedhes ev
3sf : bedhes hi
1pl : bedhen ni
2pl : bedhewgh hwi
3pl : bedhens i

Termyn: ppl past participle
PPL : bedhys

Termyn: devedhek simple future
anpersonek : bydher
1s : bydhav vy
2s : bydhydh jy
3sm : bydh ev
3sf : bydh hi
1pl : bydhyn ni
2pl : bydhowgh hwi
3pl : bydhons i

Termyn: anperfydh_usadow habitual imperfect
anpersonek : bedhes
1s : bedhen vy
2s : bedhes jy
3sm : bedha ev
3sf : bedha hi
1pl : bedhen ni
2pl : bedhewgh hwi
3pl : bedhens i

Termyn: a-lemmyn_hir_andef present (long form, indefinite)
anpersonek : eder
1s : esov vy
2s : esos jy
3sm : eus ev
3sf : eus hi
1pl : eson ni
2pl : esowgh hwi
3pl : esons i

Termyn: anperfydh_hir imperfect (long form)
anpersonek : eses
1s : esen vy
2s : eses jy
3sm : esa ev
3sf : esa hi
1pl : esen ni
2pl : esewgh hwi
3pl : esens i

Termyn: a-lemmyn_hir_defni present (long form, definite)
anpersonek : eder
1s : esov vy
2s : esos jy
3sm : usi ev
3sf : usi hi
1pl : eson ni
2pl : esowgh hwi
3pl : esons i

Termyn: a-lemmyn_hir_aff present (long form, affirmative)
anpersonek : eder
1s : esov vy
2s : esos jy
3sm : yma ev
3sf : yma hi
1pl : eson ni
2pl : esowgh hwi
3pl : ymons i


Verb Y'M BEUS: (to have) - note the a particle replaces the y in phrases like 'My a'm beus...' which will need special treatment

Termyn: a-lemmyn present
anpersonek : NULL
1s : y'm beus vy
2s : y'th eus jy
3sm : y'n jeves ev
3sf : y's teves hi
1pl : y'gan beus ni
2pl : y'gas beus hwi
3pl : y's teves i

Termyn: tremenys preterite
anpersonek : NULL
1s : y'm beu vy
2s : y'feu jy
3sm : y'n jeva ev
3sf : y's teva hi
1pl : y'gan beu ni
2pl : y'gas beu hwi
3pl : y's teva i

Termyn: anperfydh imperfect
anpersonek : NULL
1s : y'm bo vy
2s : y'th o jy
3sm : y'n jevo ev
3sf : y's tevo hi
1pl : y'gan bo ni
2pl : y'gas bo hwi
3pl : y's tevo i

Termyn: gorperfydh pluperfect
anpersonek : NULL
1s : y'm bo vy
2s : y'th o jy
3sm : y'n jevo ev
3sf : y's tevo hi
1pl : y'gan bo ni
2pl : y'gas bo hwi
3pl : y's tevo i

Termyn: islavarek_a-lemmyn present subjunctive
anpersonek : NULL
1s : y'm bo vy
2s : y'fo jy
3sm : y'n jeffo ev
3sf : y's teffo hi
1pl : y'gan bo ni
2pl : y'gas bo hwi
3pl : y's teffo i

Termyn: islavarek_anperfydh imperfect subjunctive
anpersonek : NULL
1s : y'm be vy
2s : y'fe jy
3sm : y'n jeffa ev
3sf : y's teffa hi
1pl : y'gan be ni
2pl : y'gas be hwi
3pl : y's teffa i

Termyn: devedhek simple future
anpersonek : NULL
1s : y'm bydh vy
2s : y'fydh jy
3sm : y'n jevydh ev
3sf : y's tevydh hi
1pl : y'gan bydh ni
2pl : y'gas bydh hwi
3pl : y's tevydh i

Termyn: anperfydh_usadow habitual imperfect
anpersonek : NULL
1s : y'm bedha vy
2s : y'fedha jy
3sm : y'n jevedha ev
3sf : y's tevedha hi
1pl : y'gan bedha ni
2pl : y'gas bedha hwi
3pl : y's tevedha i


Verb GODHVOS: (to know)

Termyn: a-lemmyn present
anpersonek : godhor
1s : gonn vy
2s : godhes jy
3sm : goer ev
3sf : goer hi
1pl : godhon ni
2pl : godhowgh hwi
3pl : godhons i

Termyn: tremenys preterite
anpersonek : godhves
1s : godhvev vy
2s : godhves jy
3sm : godhva ev
3sf : godhva hi
1pl : godhven ni
2pl : godhvewgh hwi
3pl : godhvons i

Termyn: anperfydh imperfect
anpersonek : godhyes
1s : godhyen vy
2s : godhyes jy
3sm : godhya ev
3sf : godhya hi
1pl : godhyen ni
2pl : godhyewgh hwi
3pl : godhyens i

Termyn: gorperfydh pluperfect
anpersonek : godhvies
1s : godhvien vy
2s : godhvies jy
3sm : godhvia ev
3sf : godhvia hi
1pl : godhvien ni
2pl : godhviewgh hwi
3pl : godhviens i

Termyn: islavarek_a-lemmyn present subjunctive
anpersonek : godher
1s : godhviv vy
2s : godhvi jy
3sm : godhvo ev
3sf : godhvo hi
1pl : godhvyn ni
2pl : godhvowgh hwi
3pl : godhvons i

Termyn: islavarek_anperfydh imperfect subjunctive
anpersonek : godhves
1s : godhven vy
2s : godhves jy
3sm : godhve ev
3sf : godhve hi
1pl : godhven ni
2pl : godhvewgh hwi
3pl : godhvens i

Termyn: gorhemmyn imperative
anpersonek : NULL
1s : NULL
2s : godhvydh jy
3sm : godhvydhes ev
3sf : godhvydhes hi
1pl : godhvydhyn ni
2pl : godhvydhewgh hwi
3pl : godhvydhens i

Termyn: ppl past participle
PPL : godhvedhys

Termyn: devedhek simple future
anpersonek : godhvydher
1s : godhvydhav vy
2s : godhvydhydh jy
3sm : godhvydh ev
3sf : godhvydh hi
1pl : godhvydhyn ni
2pl : godhvydhowgh hwi
3pl : godhvydhons i


Verb MOS: (to come)

Termyn: a-lemmyn present
anpersonek : er
1s : av vy
2s : edh jy
3sm : a ev
3sf : a hi
1pl : en ni
2pl : ewgh hwi
3pl : ons i

Termyn: tremenys preterite
anpersonek : es
1s : yth vy
2s : ythys jy
3sm : eth ev
3sf : eth hi
1pl : ethen ni
2pl : ethewgh hwi
3pl : ethons i

Termyn: anperfydh imperfect
anpersonek : es
1s : en vy
2s : es jy
3sm : e ev
3sf : e hi
1pl : en ni
2pl : ewgh hwi
3pl : ens i

Termyn: gorperfydh pluperfect
anpersonek : NULL
1s : gylsen vy
2s : gylses jy
3sm : galsa ev
3sf : galsa hi
1pl : gylsen ni
2pl : gylsewgh hwi
3pl : gylsens i

Termyn: islavarek_a-lemmyn present subjunctive
anpersonek : eller
1s : ylliv vy
2s : ylli jy
3sm : ello ev
3sf : ello hi
1pl : yllyn ni
2pl : yllowgh hwi
3pl : ellons i

Termyn: islavarek_anperfydh imperfect subjunctive
anpersonek : elles
1s : ellen vy
2s : elles jy
3sm : ella ev
3sf : ella hi
1pl : ellen ni
2pl : ellewgh hwi
3pl : ellens i

Termyn: gorhemmyn imperative
anpersonek : NULL
1s : NULL
2s : ke jy
3sm : es ev
3sf : es hi
1pl : deun ni
2pl : kewgh hwi
3pl : ens i

Termyn: ppl past participle
PPL : gyllys

Termyn: perfydh perfect
anpersonek : NULL
1s : galsov vy
2s : galsos jy
3sm : gallas ev
3sf : gallas hi
1pl : galson ni
2pl : galsowgh hwi
3pl : galsons i


Verb DOS: (to go)

Termyn: a-lemmyn present
anpersonek : deer
1s : dov vy
2s : deudh jy
3sm : deu ev
3sf : deu hi
1pl : deun ni
2pl : dewgh hwi
3pl : dons i

Termyn: tremenys preterite
anpersonek : deuthes
1s : deuth vy
2s : deuthys jy
3sm : deuth ev
3sf : deuth hi
1pl : deuthen ni
2pl : deuthewgh hwi
3pl : deuthons i

Termyn: anperfydh imperfect
anpersonek : des
1s : den vy
2s : des jy
3sm : do ev
3sf : do hi
1pl : den ni
2pl : dewgh hwi
3pl : dens i

Termyn: gorperfydh pluperfect
anpersonek : dothyes
1s : dothyen vy
2s : dothyes jy
3sm : dothya ev
3sf : dothya hi
1pl : dothyen ni
2pl : dothyewgh hwi
3pl : dothyens i

Termyn: islavarek_a-lemmyn present subjunctive
anpersonek : deffer
1s : dyffiv vy
2s : dyffi jy
3sm : deffo ev
3sf : deffo hi
1pl : dyffyn ni
2pl : dyffowgh hwi
3pl : deffons i

Termyn: islavarek_anperfydh imperfect subjunctive
anpersonek : deffes
1s : deffen vy
2s : deffes jy
3sm : deffa ev
3sf : deffa hi
1pl : deffen ni
2pl : deffewgh hwi
3pl : deffens i

Termyn: gorhemmyn imperative
anpersonek : NULL
1s : NULL
2s : deus jy
3sm : des ev
3sf : des hi
1pl : deun ni
2pl : dewgh hwi
3pl : dens i

Termyn: ppl past participle
PPL : devedhys

Termyn: perfydh perfect
anpersonek : deuves
1s : deuvev vy
2s : deuves jy
3sm : deuva ev
3sf : deuva hi
1pl : deuven ni
2pl : deuvewgh hwi
3pl : deuvons i


Verb RI: (to give)

Termyn: a-lemmyn present
anpersonek : rer
1s : rov vy
2s : redh jy
3sm : re ev
3sf : re hi
1pl : ren ni
2pl : rowgh hwi
3pl : rons i

Termyn: tremenys preterite
anpersonek : ros
1s : res vy
2s : resys jy
3sm : ros ev
3sf : ros hi
1pl : resen ni
2pl : resowgh hwi
3pl : rosons i

Termyn: anperfydh imperfect
anpersonek : res
1s : ren vy
2s : res jy
3sm : ri ev
3sf : ri hi
1pl : ren ni
2pl : rewgh hwi
3pl : rens i

Termyn: gorperfydh pluperfect
anpersonek : rosys
1s : rosen vy
2s : roses jy
3sm : rosa ev
3sf : rosa hi
1pl : rosen ni
2pl : rosewgh hwi
3pl : rosens i

Termyn: islavarek_a-lemmyn present subjunctive
anpersonek : roller
1s : rylliv vy
2s : rylli jy
3sm : rollo ev
3sf : rollo hi
1pl : ryllyn ni
2pl : ryllowgh hwi
3pl : rollons i

Termyn: islavarek_anperfydh imperfect subjunctive
anpersonek : rollys
1s : rollen vy
2s : rolles jy
3sm : rolla ev
3sf : rolla hi
1pl : rollen ni
2pl : rollewgh hwi
3pl : rollens i

Termyn: gorhemmyn imperative
anpersonek : NULL
1s : NULL
2s : ro jy
3sm : res ev
3sf : res hi
1pl : ren ni
2pl : rewgh hwi
3pl : rens i


Verb DOEN: (to carry)

Termyn: a-lemmyn present
anpersonek : degir
1s : degav vy
2s : degedh jy
3sm : deg ev
3sf : deg hi
1pl : degon ni
2pl : degowgh hwi
3pl : degons i

Termyn: tremenys preterite
anpersonek : dug
1s : dug vy
2s : duges jy
3sm : dug ev
3sf : dug hi
1pl : dugon ni
2pl : dugowgh hwi
3pl : dugons i

Termyn: anperfydh imperfect
anpersonek : degys
1s : degyn vy
2s : degys jy
3sm : degi ev
3sf : degi hi
1pl : degyn ni
2pl : degewgh hwi
3pl : degens i

Termyn: gorperfydh pluperfect
anpersonek : degsys
1s : degsen vy
2s : degses jy
3sm : degsa ev
3sf : degsa hi
1pl : degsen ni
2pl : degsewgh hwi
3pl : degsens i

Termyn: islavarek_a-lemmyn present subjunctive
anpersonek : dokker
1s : dykkiv vy
2s : dykki jy
3sm : dokko ev
3sf : dokko hi
1pl : dykkyn ni
2pl : dykkowgh hwi
3pl : dokkons i

Termyn: islavarek_anperfydh imperfect subjunctive
anpersonek : dekkys
1s : dekken vy
2s : dekkes jy
3sm : dekka ev
3sf : dekka hi
1pl : dekken ni
2pl : dekkewgh hwi
3pl : dekkens i

Termyn: gorhemmyn imperative
anpersonek : NULL
1s : NULL
2s : dog jy
3sm : deges ev
3sf : deges hi
1pl : degyn ni
2pl : degewgh hwi
3pl : degens i


Verb GUL: (to make / to do)

Termyn: a-lemmyn present
anpersonek : gwrer
1s : gwrav vy
2s : gwredh jy
3sm : gwra ev
3sf : gwra hi
1pl : gwren ni
2pl : gwrewgh hwi
3pl : gwrons i

Termyn: tremenys preterite
anpersonek : gwrug
1s : gwrug vy
2s : gwrussys jy
3sm : gwrug ev
3sf : gwrug hi
1pl : gwrussyn ni
2pl : gwrussowgh hwi
3pl : gwrussons i

Termyn: anperfydh imperfect
anpersonek : gwres
1s : gwren vy
2s : gwres jy
3sm : gwre ev
3sf : gwre hi
1pl : gwren ni
2pl : gwrewgh hwi
3pl : gwrens i

Termyn: gorperfydh pluperfect
anpersonek : gwrussys
1s : gwrussen vy
2s : gwrusses jy
3sm : gwrussa ev
3sf : gwrussa hi
1pl : gwrussen ni
2pl : gwrussewgh hwi
3pl : gwrussens i

Termyn: islavarek_a-lemmyn present subjunctive
anpersonek : gwreller
1s : gwrylliv vy
2s : gwrylli jy
3sm : gwrello ev
3sf : gwrello hi
1pl : gwryllyn ni
2pl : gwryllowgh hwi
3pl : gwrellons i

Termyn: islavarek_anperfydh imperfect subjunctive
anpersonek : gwrellys
1s : gwrellen vy
2s : gwrelles jy
3sm : gwrella ev
3sf : gwrella hi
1pl : gwrellen ni
2pl : gwrellewgh hwi
3pl : gwrellens i

Termyn: gorhemmyn imperative
anpersonek : NULL
1s : NULL
2s : gwra jy
3sm : gwres ev
3sf : gwres hi
1pl : gwren ni
2pl : gwrewgh hwi
3pl : gwrens i


Verb MYNNES: (to want/will/wish)

Termyn: a-lemmyn present
anpersonek : mynnir
1s : mynnav vy
2s : mynnydh jy
3sm : mynn ev
3sf : mynn hi
1pl : mynnyn ni
2pl : mynnowgh hwi
3pl : mynnons i

Termyn: tremenys preterite
anpersonek : mynnas
1s : mynnis vy
2s : mynnsys jy
3sm : mynnas ev
3sf : mynnas hi
1pl : mynnsyn ni
2pl : mynnsowgh hwi
3pl : mynnsons i

Termyn: anperfydh imperfect
anpersonek : mynnys
1s : mynnen vy
2s : mynnes jy
3sm : mynna ev
3sf : mynna hi
1pl : mynnen ni
2pl : mynnewgh hwi
3pl : mynnens i

Termyn: gorperfydh pluperfect
anpersonek : mynnsys
1s : mynnsen vy
2s : mynnses jy
3sm : mynnsa ev
3sf : mynnsa hi
1pl : mynnsen ni
2pl : mynnsewgh hwi
3pl : mynnsens i

Termyn: islavarek_a-lemmyn present subjunctive
anpersonek : mynner
1s : mynniv vy
2s : mynni jy
3sm : mynno ev
3sf : mynno hi
1pl : mynnyn ni
2pl : mynnowgh hwi
3pl : mynnons i

Termyn: islavarek_anperfydh imperfect subjunctive
anpersonek : mynnys
1s : mynnen vy
2s : mynnes jy
3sm : mynna ev
3sf : mynna hi
1pl : mynnen ni
2pl : mynnewgh hwi
3pl : mynnens i


Verb GALLOES: (to be able to)

Termyn: a-lemmyn present
anpersonek : gyllir
1s : gallav vy
2s : gyllydh jy
3sm : gyll ev
3sf : gyll hi
1pl : gyllyn ni
2pl : gyllowgh hwi
3pl : gyllons i

Termyn: tremenys preterite
anpersonek : gallas
1s : gyllis vy
2s : gyllsys jy
3sm : gallas ev
3sf : gallas hi
1pl : gyllsyn ni
2pl : gyllsowgh hwi
3pl : gallsons i

Termyn: anperfydh imperfect
anpersonek : gyllys
1s : gyllyn vy
2s : gyllys jy
3sm : gylli ev
3sf : gylli hi
1pl : gyllyn ni
2pl : gyllewgh hwi
3pl : gyllens i

Termyn: gorperfydh pluperfect
anpersonek : gallses
1s : gallsen vy
2s : gallses jy
3sm : gallsa ev
3sf : gallsa hi
1pl : gallsen ni
2pl : gallsewgh hwi
3pl : gallsens i

Termyn: islavarek_a-lemmyn present subjunctive
anpersonek : galler
1s : gylliv vy
2s : gylli jy
3sm : gallo ev
3sf : gallo hi
1pl : gyllyn ni
2pl : gyllowgh hwi
3pl : gallons i

Termyn: islavarek_anperfydh imperfect subjunctive
anpersonek : galles
1s : gallen vy
2s : galles jy
3sm : galla ev
3sf : galla hi
1pl : gallen ni
2pl : gallewgh hwi
3pl : gallens i


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